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Radioactivity

Radioactivity

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1 BOLTWOOD, Bertram B. "Radioactivity." Offprint from: Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. L, no. 200.
No place: American Philosophical Society, July-Aug., 1911. 1911 
8vo. 14 pp. Printed wrappers. Fine. Boltman was a colleague of Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) and was associated with Yale University. 
Price: 8.00 USD
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2 ELSTER, Johann Philipp Ludwig Julius (1854-1920) & F. K. Hans GEITEL (1855-1923). Versuche an Becquerelstrahlen. [with]: Weitere Versuche an Becquerelstrahlen.
In: Annalen der Physik und Chemie, Neue Folge, Band 66 + 69. Leipzig: Johann Ambrosius Barth, 1898, 1899. 1898 
Two volumes. 222 x 153 mm. 8vo. Pages 735-740; 83-90. [Both volumes: viii,1208; viii, 876 pp.] Quarter brown cloth, marbled boards, gilt spines. Blind-stamps of the Carnegie Institution, Washington. Fine. FIRST EDITIONS. "Soon after the discovery (1896) of radioactivity Elster and Geitel began to study Becquerel rays, in order to determine the origin of the energy of these rays. [William] Crookes (1832-1919) had proposed the hypothesis that the air molecules with the greatest velocity stimulated the rays; energy was therefore extracted from the surrounding air. Elster and Geitel placed uranium in a glass vessel that was then evacuated: even at the highest vacuum the radiation remained constant. They also placed uranium and a photographic plate in a container: the blackening of the plate was independent of the pressure. Therefore the radiation could not be stimulated by the air. Mme. Cure suggested another hypothesis: the radioactive emission was a fluorescence of the uranium, which was excited by a very penetrating radiation that fills all of space. She therefore named the new phenomenon la radioactivité, i.e., 'activated by radiation.' Elster and Geitel showed, however, that the intensity of the uranium radiation above the earth is the same as it is in a mine 852 meters below the surface. They also investigated whether uranium emitted stronger Becquerel radiation when under the influence of cathode rays. For this purpose they developed a new Lenard cathode-ray tube, which let pass into the atmosphere an intense electron beam with a cross section of several square centimeters. (They closed off the discharge tube with a copper net covered with a very thin aluminum foil; the cathode rays escaped through the net's interstices.) The result was negative. They also demonstrated that Becquerel radiation is independent of the temperature of the uranium and of the compound in which it occurs. They concluded from these and other experiments that the radioactive emission is not the consequence of an external influence, but can only be a spontaneous release of energy by the atom." DSB, IV, p. 355. "Elster and Geitel, as inseparable in their life as in their work, were called 'the Castor and Pollux of physics.' They set up their physics laboratory in their residence, which also contained an astronomical telescope, terraria with tropical animals, and all kinds of natural history collections. They took vacation trips together to investigate the electricity in mountain and sea air and to measure the radioactivity of rocks, springs, and spas." DSB, IV, p. 356. In 1905, 1907, 1908, 1910, and 1911 they were nominated for the Nobel Prize. For a detailed discussion these two papers, see: Pais, Inward bound, pp. 109-111. First Edition. 
Price: 350.00 USD
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3 HEVESY, George. A Manual of Radioactivity.
London: Oxford University Press, 1938. 1938 
Second edition. 8vo. xvi, 306 pp. 5 plates, 54 figs., 55 tables. Blue cloth, gilt-stamped spine title. Ink signature of Albert M. Potts on title-page. Fine. 
Price: 19.00 USD
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4 Hotblack, Frank A. “A New Activity?” A treatise on Mrs. Dickinson’s Discovery of a “new radio-activity” (with some notes on radium). With a foreword by Alfred W. Oke.
London: Jarrolds, (1920). 1920 
Small 8vo. 195 pp. Frontispiece, 17 illus., figs. Cloth printed in black, dust-jacket. RARE in jacket. Fine copy. 
Price: 135.00 USD
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5 ROMER, Alfred (ed.). The Discovery of Radioactivity and Transmutation.
New York: Dover, (1964). 1964 
Series: Classics of Science, Volume II. 8vo. xi, 233, 15 (ads.) pp. 7 figs., index. Color printed wrappers; light water marks on top edge. Very good. 
Price: 20.00 USD
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6 SCHMIDT, Gerhard Carl Nathaniel (1865-1949). Ueber die von den Thorverbindungen und einigen anderen Substanzen ausgehende Strahlung.
In: Annalen der Physik und Chemie, Neue Folge, Band 65, No. 5, 1898. Leipzig: Johann Ambrosius Barth, 1898. 1898 
222 x 154 mm. 8vo. Pages 141-151. [Entire volume: viii, 952 pp.] 3 figs. Quarter cloth, marbled boards, gilt spine. Blind stamp of the Carnegie Institution of Washington Solar Observatory. Fine. In late 1897 or early 1898, Gerhard Schmidt "made the discovery for which he is most famous - the radioactivity of thorium. (Marie Curie soon made the same discovery independently.) Schmidt made this discovery while examining 'many elements and compounds' in an effort to determine whether any of the rays that were emitted bore a resemblance to those that Henri Becquerel had found emerging from uranium and uranium compounds. He located only one such element, thorium, and immediately conducted absorption, ionization, reflection, refraction, and polarization studies to determine the characteristics of its rays. Having combined a misinterpretation of Becquerel's with one of his own, Schmidt concluded that thorium rays most resembled Röntgen rays - a conclusion that soon required revision in view of the researches of Marie Curie and Ernest Rutherford." - DSB. References: DSB, XII, p. 191; Pais, Inward bound, p. 54; Partington, A history of chemistry, IV, p. 938; Weeks, Discovery of the elements, 5th ed., pp. 327, 486. 
Price: 400.00 USD
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7 SKOBELTZYN, Dmitry (d. 1984). Über eine neue Art sehr schneller B-Strahlen.
In: Zeitschrift für Physik, Vol. 54, 1929. Berlin: 
Julius Springer, 1929. 231 x 155 mm. 8vo. 686-702 pp. [Entire volume: viii, 885 pp.] 9 figs., 2 tables. Navy cloth, gilt spine. Blind-stamp of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Mount Wilson Observatory. Fine. FIRST EDITION. In February of 1929 "Skobeltzyn notices that cosmic ray particles frequently occur in groups - first indication of showers." Pais. "After my first casual observation on the appearance of cosmic-ray tracks in a Wilson chamber [the term cosmic ray (which had not yet been adopted) was not mentioned by me on that occasion, nor even Höhenstrahlung], a full report on the corresponding results of my work was published in 1929." Skobeltzyn. "Meanwhile, in Leningrad, Skobeltzyn, who had been studying radioactive y radiation, began using the Wilson cloud chamber to observe the trajectories of cosmic-ray particles in a magnetic field, where a charged particle's track is curved, with a radius of curvature directly proportional to the particle momentum and inversely proportional to the magnetic field. He also noted that tracks appeared to be associated with each other, to a degree difficult to account for by the scattering processes known at that time. SKOBELTZYN'S WORK WAS THE FIRST VISUAL METHOD FOR OBSERVING PROCESSES OF PARTICLES WITH ENERGIES HIGHER THAN THOSE AVAILABLE FROM RADIOACTIVE SOURCES." Brown, & Hoddeson, "Birth of elementary particle physics: 1930-1950," in Brown & Hoddeson, The birth of particle physics, pp. 8-9. Pais, Inward bound, p. 404; Skobeltzyn, "The early stage of cosmic-ray particle research," in Brown & Hoddeson, The birth of particle physics, pp. 112-113. First Edition. 
Price: 150.00 USD
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